Goon Tong Village 官塘村 History

Here are some history on Goon Tong or Kwun Tong Village  (Official Pond Village)

官塘村

This is the Chock and Sai home village

Significant history:

1.  Dr. Sun Yat Sen’s first wife came from this town.

Ancient Villages in Southern China Series thirty-two: official village

http://www.dayoo.com/http://www.dayoo.com/ 2010-07-17 20:44 Source: Ocean Forum User reviews (? 0 )

[Figure / text Wu Putian]

  Kwun Tong is located in Zhuhai Tangjiawan town, because of its mountains (seven slopes) and the sea (Bay), there are seven stars on the potential, hence the saying “Seven ground.” After 1300 years ago, Tsai fishing village in this opening; a hundred years later, another Zhuoshi from Putian, Fujian moved to, because Cho’s second-generation ancestor as “strict concept of public”, whichever is homophonic, then named the “Seven places “as the Kwun Tong.

  Today, more than 2,400 villagers to Kwun Tong Zhuo, She surname based, but as a former small fishing village, “Dan Man” (also called “water wood”) is always like driftwood-like drift to, and if the tide receded So, Kwun Tong surname is particularly complex, the village’s “Family Names” on the stone, engraved in Kwun Tong live and work there are over 96 surnames.

  Ming and Qing dynasties population surge, due to population pressure, the Central Plains immigrants have migrated to the south, also fishing peasant villagers began Kwun Tong. Conversion mode of production has also brought cultural changes, more people began to settle and multiply in Kwun Tong, ancestral temples gradually beefing, clan culture had become the climate, such as “Cho’s big genealogy” is not only intact, but Continuation continued. On the concept of village office corridor, Kwun Tong, retired elementary school teacher 卓炳 right shows the three months he transcribed “Cho’s big genealogy ‘scroll, a total of more than 60 meters, amazing.

  Because adjacent to Macau, Kwun Tong have trend of the first early in the Qing Dynasty, many children of farmers on the new school, dispatches abroad, determined to industrial nation. Today’s official village has many built in the Early Republic of reinforced concrete structures bungalows, villas, built in the 1915’s rural councils, as well as residential wood blinds, several kilometers of Stone Street, is this class was learning there The epigenetic benefit Xiang Zi into a masterpiece. However, if asked how many Kwun Tong had a history of celebrity, the villagers would most likely include Sun Yat-sen’s first wife Lu Mu Chen, who will be mentioned a little insight famous modern bridge engineers, designers Zhuoguan Pei Guangzhou Haizhu Bridge.

  In the eighties, Kwun Tong, as was the party secretary of the village of hanging points, got a lot of benefits and support, such as the levy system when the land is zoned for “production and living space” in the village next to the village on discretionary much, Kwun Tong thereby adding to the potential for further development, has become the first town Tangjiawan billion village. Due to the direct benefit from the leadership’s concern, Kwun Tong cadres try to avoid total discredit the leadership of the face of things, including consciously get rid of “feudal superstition”, large and small shrine closed doors over the years, a few years ago spontaneously beefing village Patriarch (Hui Neng) Temple, cadres also secretly blocked. Zhuobing right to say, trying to “Zhuo’s big Genealogy” scroll fired tiles affixed to the wall, so that future generations the memory of their ancestors, brothers outside money is donated, but the village is not promised to show places.

  Kwun Tong Virgins Temple doorway couplet reads: “One path pines seasons Huayu, half booths coldest five nights of frost,” was beautiful, but why always with the bitter cold to kindness, warmth end not with earthly counterparts?

 

华南古村落系列之三十二:官塘村

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[图 / 文 吴莆田]


  官塘位于珠海唐家湾镇,因其依山(七座山坡)傍海(湾),有七星伴月之势,故曰“七星地”。1300年前后,有蔡姓渔家在此开村;百余年后,又有卓氏从福建莆田迁来,因卓氏二世祖为“观严公”,取其谐音,遂命名此“七星地”为官塘。

  今天官塘2400多村民中以卓、佘姓为主,但作为曾经的小渔村,“疍民”(也被称为“流水柴”)总是如浮木般漂来,又如潮汐般退去,所以,官塘的姓氏尤为复杂,村内的“百家姓”石碑上,就刻有在官塘生息劳作过的96个姓氏。

  明清两朝人口大增,因人口压力,中原移民纷纷南迁,官塘村民开始亦渔亦农。生产方式的转换也带来文化的变迁,更多的人开始在官塘定居繁衍,庙宇祠堂陆续兴修,宗族文化渐成气候,如《卓氏大族谱》不仅保持完整,而且续修不断。在观塘村办公楼的走廊上,观塘小学退休教师卓炳权展示了他用3个月时间誊写的《卓氏大族谱》长卷,共60余米,令人惊叹不已。

  因毗邻澳门,官塘早在清末民初就得风气之先,许多农家子弟上了新式学堂,放洋海外,立志实业报国。今天的官塘村有许多建于民国初年的钢筋水泥结构的洋房、别墅,有建于1915年的乡议会,还有民居的木百叶窗、数千米的石街,就是这班当年学有所成的后生造福乡梓的杰作。不过,若问官塘曾出过多少历史名人,村民大多会举出孙中山的原配夫人庐慕贞,稍有见识者会提到近代著名桥梁工程师、广州海珠桥的设计者卓观培。

  在上世纪八十年代,官塘作为当时市委书记的挂点村,得了不少优惠与扶持,如在土地统征时,划给村里自由支配的“生产生活用地”就比邻村多,官塘由此平添发展后劲,成了唐家湾镇的第一个亿元村。因直接受惠于领导的关心,官塘的干部总尽力避免发生抹黑领导脸面的事,其中就包括自觉破除“封建迷信”,大大小小祠堂的大门经年关闭,几年前有村人自发兴修六祖(惠能)庙,干部也是暗中阻止。卓炳权说,想把《卓氏大族谱》长卷烧成瓷片贴上墙,让子孙后代缅怀先人,钱也是外面的兄弟捐的,但村里就是不答应给展示场所。

  官塘贞女祠门口对联曰:“一径松风四时花雨,半亭冷月五夜寒霜”,美则美矣,但为何美意总随凄寒去,终不与俗世的温情同行?

The Guangdong Zhuhai Kwun Tong Zhuo surname from Abas Lane

Time :2012-10-7 20:18:21 of: Zhuo juvenile male sources: the Guangfu people Abas Lane descendants of Overseas Friendship Association Views: 25 Comments: 0
    The Zhuo surname is a descendant of the late Warring States Chu family. Birthplace and early migratory limited to the Central Plains. Han Dynasty, especially after the Northern and Southern, Central Plains Zhuo family because of the war, career, constantly migration southward. In recent years around the finishing genealogy ancestors ancient migrations, largely to find the root cause. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, etc. Most Zhuo surname, descendants of the early years of migration Fujian Zhuo surname. Zhuhai Kwun Tong Zhuo surname is different from the the Zhuo surname Fujian lineage, the Kwun Tong Zhuo surname ancestors migration, with different historical backgrounds and ages, the route Henan Kaifeng – Zhejiang Zhuji – Nanxiong Abas Lane, – the Pearl River Delta (Guangzhou , Zhuhai), the Guangfu 族姓 southward with the Pearl River Delta, the majority of the Central Plains experienced the same.
    Originally, emphasis on ancient lineage genealogy, particularly as mayor. The Zhuhai officials Tong Village Zhuo surname is the Xihe prominent families, thousands of official Tong Estate Settlement population has emigrated overseas began in the seventeenth century, diaspora estimated Yu Wan. But the Kwun Tong Zhuo surname, since the Warring States after previous descent to the end of the Song describes, has no genetic. The existing Ming and Qing ancient genealogical records, this is because of the Southern Song Dynasty, avoid Bingxian books lost due to migration. Thus, cut the the Kwun Tong Zhuo surname from the Qin Dynasty to the descent of the Southern Song Dynasty records and movement history.
    Although the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Kwun Tong Zhuo family elite “ear in predecessors” – with the oral tradition of the elderly, rehabilitation genealogy. But to those “Shiyuan years submerged, not without missing slightly …”, “… I do not know a few World moved those who do not know a few people, the the name taboo World number Ke Deer details ……” (Note 1). Rebuilt genealogy can only be recorded after the end of the Song in the early Ming southward migration now Zhongshan Yongmo generations. “Bong (by: Kwun Tong, a generation ancestor father Zhuo Feng), Kaobi and on the generation ancestor Kaobi and the father of Kaobi of the branch, documented numerous check disorderly”, had “Que can also” (Note). Even these genealogies, and later rebuilt several times lost Yi. “Hing public across the river, carrying a spectrum century Zhao contained. Between Hong Cheng (: Ming Dynasty Chenghua, Hongzhi years ,1465-1505) in habitat Wu public lost Bingxian” (Note a). And “Xi was the orthodox yellow Kou Rebellion (by: 1448 Guangdong Huang Xiao Yang uprising), as I gray farmhouse flame, spectral Zhi Suiwang” (Note 1).
    Therefore, the Modern Kwun Tong Zhuo surname tribe only ancestors of mouth “by Abas Lane, moved to the vague concept of the source of the Patriarchs, the ancestors of the migration process, route and age, are not well understood.
    Recently, I have the opportunity to see volumes Zhuo surname Gupu, which included many Zhuo surname ancestors spectral sequence (early as to MingZhengDe, Kwun Tong VII Feasibility of bamboo at Baba 1509 written spectrum sequence). Peruse, I think: beginning descended from Zuzhuo Bong not Putian, Fujian Zhuo surname Zhuhai Kwun Tong Zhuo surname, the Kwun Tong Zhuo surname is not from Putian, Fujian moved, but was removed from the Jiangsu and Zhejiang to Abas Lane, emigrated by Abas Lane, Zhuhai.
The existing Gupu Although not recorded in Kwun Tong, beginning Zuzhuo Bong before descent Directory, but spectral sequences, the of Kwun Tong Zhuo family history on account of migratory routes and migratory reason, it is very clear. So we go in search of the the Kwun Tong Zhuo surname sources today, the only reliable and very clear basis. Migratory era of the long time spans, in several resided ground presence multiply how many generations, and lineage List did not elaborate it. As long as our national development, migration in the history of social change, the change of dynasties and spectral sequence describes the control confirms, not hard Kwun Tong Zhuo family ancestors migration process, so they know the Kwun Tong Zhuo family sources. Below on this detail.
   ***
    Recently had the opportunity to see the scattered Gupu, including the transcript of the original copy of the recent transcript of 5 and 7. Indexed spectral sequence and description of a total of 10. 5 spectral sequence early migratory Kwun Tong Zhuo family briefly describes roughly the same content. Now choose a backing as explore.
    Kwun Tong Zhuo’s VII Feasibility of bamboo began repair progenitor Hing room spectrum Baba (1509) (the transcript of a copy of the Note a) a “another order”, which for some to clear account of: family background phase first Song Ju Henan Kaifeng Qi County, avoid gold difficult living in Zhuji County. Zhu avoid soldiers has also moved the Nanxiong sand into the water Abas Lane, the site of the housing market so far still the end of Song Yuan soldiers soldiers and civilians captured Kat Ganzhou, progenitor and involving wide everywhere so the tomb of today that the Department also home … since the early Hongwu this … concept family background since Song moved Guangdong, then in Qi in Zhuji, in Abas Lane, Home , I do not know a few world moved to those who do not know a few people … “. It can be seen, the Kwun Tong Zhuo surname and Abas Lane southward migration Guangfu surname family experience identical; originated from Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan around Zhuo surname. This article on Gupu a paragraph-by-paragraph control history to explore.
(1) “First Song ranks Henan Kaifeng Qi County
I have in “of Zhuo surname origins doubt test, according to the late Warring States to Qin unified a turbulent history, combined with the history contained Zhuo family name initial activities infer Zhuo family early migration resides Henan, rather than simply divided into Anhui, Sichuan two. (See section IV of this paper, three paragraphs) it now appears, of this inference Gupu sequence in Kwun Tong Zhuo place of surname ancestors in Kaifeng of this record is consistent and will not go into.
(2) “to avoid gold difficult living in Zhuji County
To the late Northern Song Dynasty, Song Dynasty steadily under the pressure of the northern invasion failed. Jingkang the first year (1126), Jin Jun breaking the seal, the following year the prisoners emblem, the Two Emperors. Song Shi southward migration, the establishment of the Southern Song Dynasty. This period triggered once the Central Plains to the south of Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and even across the Nanling immigrants. Many surnames genealogy records today and the Pearl River Delta, the ancestors gradually the Chengxiang Nan migration of immigrants (Note 2) of this period. Gupu records Kwun Tong Zhuo’s ancestors difficult to avoid gold moved Zhuji (Zhejiang), is clearly consistent with this history, it is reasonable. Relocated Zhuji Northern Song Dynasty the last Jingkang (1126), clearly.
(3) “Avoid million soldiers to move the Nanxiong sand into the water, Abas Lane, the site of the housing market so far still exist.”
The the Yuan Dynasty predecessor of Mongolia in The Southern Song Duanping in the first year (1234) off the Golden State, the intensification of military operations of the Southern Song Dynasty, the Yuan army NaZheng war frequently. 1271 founding of the yuan. Gupu recorded in Kwun Tong Zhuo Ancestor refuge million soldiers southward migration Abas Lane, when this period of time. The relocated Abas Lane is not the passing, Gupu, essays sequence, Zhuo surname presence the Abas Lane “so far still the site of the housing market. Visible previous stays the Abas Lane. In this case, the same surname as the Pearl River Delta, many family Abas Lane, Yu Ling’s natural barrier the Nanxiong along the vast fertile ground, you can sacrifice the long corner. Again and southward migration due to war or other events generally have three to seven generations of residence interest-earning (Note 2). Kwun Tong Zhuo’s in Abas Lane, residence time, discussed in paragraph (6) points.
(4) “Late Song Yuan soldiers soldiers and civilians captured Kat Ganzhou, my father, involving wide everywhere so the tomb that the Department also.”
 History planted 1273-1278 years between two armies Song and Yuan Yu Lingnan North tug of war for seven years. Abas Lane by the scourge of war can imagine. In the meantime, in 1275, the Yuan army grams Jiangxi Zhu Jun, the same year to overcome Nanxiong. The This is Gupu documented historical facts million soldiers captured Kat Gan “. Kwun Tong Zhuo’s move out of the Abas Lane to reason and age of the Guang-cheng (by: Canton City refers to this in Guangzhou, other similar surname genealogy records, see Note 2). After, Kwun Tong Zhuo’s residence in Guangzhou there for some time (PRD other surname family resembles the case), so the tomb that its at one illustrates this everywhere ancestors repair spectrum year, Guangzhou Zhuo’s so tomb. Kwun Tong Zhuo’s residence in Guangzhou, how long can not be traced, but since the left so the tomb, I believe that the time is not short, and then migrated to the south Yongmo.
(5) “Yongmo living quite dramatically prosperous.” (Note 3)
Visible in Zhongshan Yongmo the time at least one or two generations of reproduction.
(6) “… since Hongwu early home today ……”
    Gupu this sentence refers sub Yongmo Zhuo Feng — Kwun Tong I Zuzhuo a wide moved Kwun Tong settle things.
    Directly above excerpt Abas Lane Gupu (1) to (6) above, with the historical control, you can clearly see, the Kwun Tong Zhuo family, Kaifeng (1126) – Zhuji moved in (before and after 1126) – ( close to 1271 period to move) – Guangzhou (about 1275 moved to) – Zhongshan Yongmo, during the lifetime of residence before Zhuo Feng (1386) – Zhuhai Kwun Tong (after 1386, that the early years of Hongwu move into) ” migratory process, Gupu, gave us a clear and complete account of. The experience of 200 years of migration process, you can use the historical corroboration of the nation, the state, and the Pearl River Delta immigration,, Gupu account of no doubt.
    In recent years, expert Abas Lane immigrants research has been quite in-depth, Zhuo surname is not seen in the literature. Abas Lane 157 immigrants surname Cho no surname. I would like to put forward the following two focus further research, for professional or interested parties.
1. Zhuhai Kwun Tong Zhuo surname ancestors had residency the Abas Lane, but did not leave a record.
   Have argued above, Kwun Tong Zhuo’s left Zhuji southward migration of Abas Lane about in the early Yuan Dynasty about 1271, and that in 1275 and move out of the Southern Song Dynasty Abas Lane seen in Abas Lane residence, not a long time. Although Gupu writing the preface to the 1509 Zhuo surname PRD Guangfu immigrants Abas Lane is still “the housing field sites, but previously lived several generations of different in Abas Lane a. Year Abas Lane household management, and even migration “text cited. But Zhuo surname residence time is short, the number of households small population, stimulated the war-torn years, the Abas Lane did not leave the residence and migration records also reasonable. I believe this is a long time, the research literature, records of of Abas Lane migration surname Zhuo no surname reasons.
   2. The Kwun Tong Zhuo surname first Zuzhuo Feng was born in Guangdong. Before birth, Bong’s father, grandfather has already moved from Abas Lane Guangzhou – Zhongshan Yongmo.
Gupu documented the Kwun Tong ancestors was Zhuo Fengsheng in Gengshen year ($ Nobusuke seven) of Died Bingyin years (19 Hongwu years), ie 1320-1386 years. 1275 family above argument since the after Abas Lane southward migration of about 45 years before they were born. This is important, said Mingzhuo Bong born in Guangzhou (and then moved to Yongmo after), Zhuo Feng fathers, even grandfathers, has long vacate the Abas Lane to Guangzhou or Yongmo. If we look carefully read Gupu eight generation descendant of the preamble of the year, also revealed traces of it. The preface in Speaking after a Yongmo Dongshan Zhuo Feng tombs mentioned “the mailer Kaobi last generation ancestor Kaobi … Fun investigation disorder” (Bong’s parents, grandparents, no traced) This “Que can “Can not describing it (Note 3).
    1,2 above two points, in addition to prove from the migration routes of the migratory routes of the Kwun Tong Zhuo surname ancestors in Putian, Fujian Zhuo surname, the Kwun Tong began Zuzhuo Bong, not from Putian, Fujian. Also, from the migration years proved that a the the Kwun Tong Zhuo surname a Fujian Zhuo surname, along the different routes of movement during the same period. Putian, Fujian Zhuo surname, check a pulse, as early as in a time Yongxing (306) KWANG Ren Jinan prefect to Fujian, to Don Sadamoto thirteen years (797 years) spread XIII Zhuo hidden any Putian order to become Putian Zhuo surname ancestor. Multiply in Putian, continuous clear lineage List. Fujian Putian Zhuo surname rolling in Fujian in a millennium (306-1320). (1126 years ago) and the Kwun Tong Zhuo surname the ancestors Jingkang years still in Kaifeng, Henan, the Kwun Tong the beginning Zuzhuo Bong parent, grandparents around 1280 in Guangzhou – Zhongshan Yongmo,,, (Note: the the the Fujian Putian Zhuo surname ancestors moved to into Fujian the Kwun Tong Zhuo surname ancestors still in Kaifeng, after 300 years, the the Kwun Tong Zhuo surname ancestors began to migrate from Kaifeng, no path to residency to Fujian, removed to reach Zhuhai!) Obviously, the Kwun Tong Zhuo Feng a not one of the Fujian Putian Zhuo surname. At least a thousand years ago is just “one”.
Wish this for all the readers to pray for the correction. (November 28, 2008)
Tel: 13660270992 Email: [email protected]
Note:
Note Feasibility of bamboo, Kwun Tong VII Baba in MingZhengDe, (1509) began repair
Tongzhi (1871) rebuilt three-generation ancestor Hing Kwun Tong Zhuo surname offshoot (Dongguan) spectrum, the early Republican transcripts of Xinwei. Adduction VII, Feasibility of bamboo preface.
   Note II, “the Nanxiong Abas immigration history and culture” (Jinan University Press)
Note, Kwun Tong Zhuo’s seventeen generation descendant the Boshin years (1868) Continuation of the flood side room spectrum, which included eight generation descendant of the preface.
Note, Daoguang of Jiachen years (1844), Dongguan Zhuo’s Run remaining hall spectrum of transcript spectral sequence.

The Guangdong Zhuhai Kwun Tong Zhuo surname from Abas Lane

 

The Guangdong Zhuhai Kwun Tong Zhuo surname from Abas Lane

The Guangdong Zhuhai Kwun Tong Zhuo surname from Abas Lane

The Guangdong Zhuhai Kwun Tong Zhuo surname from Abas Lane
 

 

广东珠海官塘卓姓来自珠玑巷

http://www.chens.org.cn/xs/news/?7618.html

时间:2012-10-7 20:18:21  作者:卓稚雄  来源:广府人珠玑巷后裔海外联谊会  查看:175  评论:1
 
 
 
 
    卓姓是战国末期楚王族的后裔。发祥地和早期的迁徙局限于中原。汉代特别是南北朝以后,中原卓族因为战乱、仕途,不断迁徙南移。近年各地整理族谱,对先祖历代的迁徙,大体觅得根源。广东、广西、海南等多数卓姓,是早年迁徙福建的卓姓后裔。但珠海官塘卓姓,有别于卓姓的福建族系,官塘卓姓先祖的迁徙,具有不同的历史背景和年代,路线是河南开封—浙江诸暨—南雄珠玑巷—珠江三角洲(广州、珠海),与珠三角多数中原南移的广府族姓的经历相同。
    本来,古时重视世系族谱,望族尤甚。珠海官塘村卓姓是西河望族,在官塘村聚落人口曾达数千,移居海外始于十七世纪,侨民估计逾万。但官塘卓姓,自战国以后至宋末以前的世系记述,至今未见遗传。据现存明、清古族谱记载,这是因为南宋末年,避兵燹,在迁徙时典籍散失所致。由此,割断了官塘卓姓自秦代到南宋末年的世系记录和迁徙历史。
    虽然到明、清时期,官塘卓族中的贤能又“耳于先辈”—凭长者的口传,重修了族谱。但“世远年湮,往者不无缺略……”,“……不知几世,迁居者不知几人,名讳世数不可得而详……”(注一)。重修的族谱只能记录宋末明初南迁今中山雍陌以后的世代。“奉(按:官塘一世祖的父亲卓奉)之考妣及上世祖考妣与分支之祖考妣,记载纷查无序”,只好“阙之可也”(注三)。即使是这些重修的族谱,后来又多次失轶。“兴公过江时携有一谱,世纪昭载。成弘间(按:明代成化、弘治年间,1465-1505)栖梧公失于兵燹中也”(注一)。又“惜遭正统黄寇之乱(按:1448年广东黄萧养起事),庐舍焰为余灰,谱帙遂亡”(注一)。
    因此,近代官塘卓姓族人对先祖的来源仅有先辈口传“由珠玑巷迁来”的模糊概念,对先祖迁徙过程、路线和年代,都不甚了解。
    最近,笔者有机会看到几册卓姓古谱,其中收录不少卓姓先辈的谱序(早至明正德年间,官塘七世孙怀竹于己巳年即1509年撰写的谱序)。细读之后,笔者认为:珠海官塘卓姓始祖卓奉不是福建莆田卓姓的后裔,官塘卓姓不是从福建莆田迁来,而是辗转从江浙到珠玑巷,再由珠玑巷移居珠海。
现存古谱虽然没有记载官塘始祖卓奉以前的世系名录,但谱序中,对官塘卓族历史上迁徙路线和迁徙原因的记述,是十分清晰的。使我们今天去探求官塘卓姓来源,得到唯一可靠和十分明确的依据。只是这些迁徙的年代、跨越的漫长时间、在几处落籍地留驻繁衍多少代,以及世系名录等等,没有详述而已。只要我们将民族发展、社会变迁、朝代更迭的历史与谱序中的迁徙记述对照印证,就不难得出官塘卓族先人的迁徙过程,从而知道官塘卓族的来源。下文就此详述。
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    最近有机会看到的零散古谱,包括缮本的原本、复印本和近期抄本共5种7册。收录谱序及记述共10篇。其中有5篇谱序有官塘卓族早年迁徙的简略记述,内容大致相同。现择其中一节作为探讨的依托。
    官塘卓氏七世孙怀竹始修于己巳年(1509年)的祖兴房谱(缮本复印件,注一)中,有一篇“又序”,其中有一段至为清晰的记述:“家世相先宋居河南开封府杞县,避金难居诸暨县。亦已诸避元兵迁居南雄沙水里珠玑巷,屋场遗址至今犹存。宋末元兵攻陷吉赣州军民,我祖又涉广城,之今处处有故墓即其处也。……自洪武初居今……因念家世自宋以来三迁至广东,当时于杞、于诸暨、于珠玑巷、于居者,不知几世,迁居者不知几人……”。由此可以看到,官塘卓姓与珠玑巷南迁的广府姓族,经历雷同;而不同源于福建的广东、广西、海南各地卓姓。本文就古谱的上述一节,逐段对照历史进行探讨。
(1)“先宋居河南开封府杞县”
笔者曾在《卓姓源流若干疑问考》一文中,依据战国后期至秦统一的一段动荡历史,结合史载卓姓家族初期的活动,推断卓族早期迁徙时,部分驻留河南,而不是简单地分为安徽、四川两支。(见该文第四节第二、三段)现在看来,这一推断与古谱序中官塘卓姓先祖居地在开封的这一记载是吻合的,在此不再赘述。
(2)“避金难居诸暨县”
到了北宋后期,宋朝在北方入侵的压力下节节失败。靖康元年(1126年),金军破开封,次年俘徽、钦二帝。宋室南迁,建立南宋。这个时期,引发一次中原向南方的江、浙甚至越过南岭的大移民。今珠江三角洲许多姓氏的族谱记载,先祖多是此时期逐程向南迁徙的移民(注二)。古谱记载官塘卓氏先祖避金难迁到(浙江)诸暨,显然与这段历史吻合,是合理的。迁诸暨显然是北宋末靖康(1126年)的事。
(3)“避元兵迁南雄沙水里珠玑巷,屋场遗址至今犹存。”
元朝的前身蒙古国在南宋端平元年(1234年)灭金国后,对南宋的军事行动加剧,元军南征战事频频。1271年元建国。古谱记载官塘卓族先祖”避元兵”南迁珠玑巷,当在这一段时间。迁珠玑巷并非途经,古谱撰序的时候,卓姓留驻珠玑巷的“屋场遗址至今犹存”。可见是曾经居留珠玑巷。这种情况,如同珠江三角洲许多姓族一样,到珠玑巷之后,因为有大庾岭的天然屏障和南雄一带的广袤沃土,可以偏安一隅。到了再次因战事或其他事件而南迁之前,一般都有三至七代的居留生息(注二)。官塘卓氏在珠玑巷的居留时间,在下文第(6)点后讨论。
(4)“宋末元兵攻陷吉赣州军民,我祖又涉广城,今处处有故墓即其处也。”
 史栽1273-1278年间,宋元两军在庾岭南北拉锯战长达七年。珠玑巷受战乱之祸可以想见。其间,1275年,元军克江西诸郡,同年攻克南雄。这就是古谱记载“元兵攻陷吉赣”的史实。也就是官塘卓氏迁出珠玑巷到广城的原因和年代(按:广城指今广州,其他姓氏族谱有类似记载,见注二)。之后,官塘卓氏在广州又有一段时间的居留(珠三角其他姓族亦多如此),“今处处有故墓即其处也”一句足以说明先辈修谱当年,广州还有卓氏故墓。官塘卓氏在广州居留了多长时间已无可考,但既然留有故墓,相信时日也不短,然后再南迁雍陌。
(5)“雍陌居住亦颇繁盛。”(注三)
可见在中山雍陌的时日至少也有一两代的繁衍。
(6)“……自洪武初居今……”
    古谱中这一句就是指雍陌卓奉之子—官塘一世祖卓广一迁到官塘定居的事。
    以上直接摘录古谱的(1)至(6)段,与史实对照,可以清晰地看到,官塘卓族,“开封(1126年之前)—诸暨(1126年前后迁入)—珠玑巷(接近1271年的时期迁入)—广州(约1275年迁入)—中山雍陌(1386年之前卓奉在世期间居留)—珠海官塘(1386年后,即明洪武初年迁入)”这个迁徙过程,古谱给了我们一个清晰、完整的记述。这个经历了二百多年的迁徙过程,可以用民族、国家和珠三角移民的历史印证,因此,古谱的记述无可置疑。
    近年,专家对珠玑巷移民的研究已相当深入,但卓姓未见诸有关文献。珠玑巷移民的157个姓氏中亦未见卓姓。笔者谨就此提出如下两个焦点,供专业或有兴趣的人士进一步考证。
1.珠海官塘卓姓先祖曾居留珠玑巷,但没有留下记载。
   上文已经论证,官塘卓氏离开诸暨南迁珠玑巷大约在元初约1271年,而南宋末年即1275年又迁出珠玑巷,可见在珠玑巷居留的时间不长。虽然古谱撰写序文的1509年卓姓在珠玑巷仍有“屋场遗址”,但与许多珠三角的广府移民先前在珠玑巷一住数代不同。当年珠玑巷有户籍管理,甚至迁移也有“文引”。但卓姓居留时间短,户数人口少,又逢战火纷飞的年头,在珠玑巷没有留下户籍和迁徙记录亦在情理。相信这是长期以来,研究珠玑巷迁徙姓氏的文献、记录都没有卓姓的原因。
   2.官塘卓姓先祖卓奉在广东出生。出生前,奉的父亲、祖父早已从珠玑巷移居广州–中山雍陌。
古谱记载官塘先祖卓奉生于庚申年(元延祐七年),卒于丙寅年(明洪武十九年),即1320-1386年。也就是上文论证的1275年家族自珠玑巷南迁之后约45年才出生的。这一点很重要,说明卓奉是在广州(更可能是再迁雍陌后)出生的,卓奉的父辈、甚至祖父辈,早已迁出珠玑巷到了广州或雍陌。只要我们细心阅读古谱八世孙当年的序文,也透露了这一点的痕迹。序文在说到卓奉墓葬在雍陌东山一节之后,提及“奉之考妣与上世祖之考妣……纷查无序”(奉的父母、祖父母无可查考),这才“阙之可也”无法记述而已(注三)。
    上述1、2两点,除了从迁徙路线证明,官塘卓姓先祖的迁徙路线与福建莆田卓姓不相同,官塘始祖卓奉不是来自福建莆田。而且,还从迁徙年代证明,官塘卓姓一支与福建卓姓一支,在同一时段沿不同路线迁徙。查福建莆田卓姓一脉,早在晋惠帝永兴三年(306年)卓宏任晋安太守入福建,到唐贞元十三年(797年)传至十三世卓隐之任莆田令,成为莆田卓姓始祖。在莆田繁衍,世系名录连续清晰。福建莆田卓姓连绵一千年(306-1320年)都在福建。而官塘卓姓的先辈靖康年间(1126年前后)仍在河南开封,官塘始祖卓奉的父、祖辈1280年左右已在广州—中山雍陌,(注意:即福建莆田卓姓的先祖迁入福建时,官塘卓姓先祖仍在开封,300年后,官塘卓姓先祖才开始从开封迁徙,没有路经居留福建,辗转到达珠海!)。显然,官塘卓奉一支不是福建莆田卓姓的一支。只是“至少一千年前是一家”而已。
谨将本文供诸读者,以祈指正。 ( 2008年11月28日)
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注释:
注一、   官塘七世孙怀竹于明正德己巳年(1509年)始修、
清同治辛未年(1871年)重修的官塘卓姓三世祖兴支脉(东莞)谱,民国初年缮本。内收七世孙怀竹序文。
   注二、《南雄珠玑移民的历史文化》(暨南大学出版社)
注三、官塘卓氏十七世孙戊辰年(1868年)续修洪边房谱,其中收录八世孙的序文。
注四、   道光甲辰年(1844年)东莞卓氏润馀堂谱缮本的谱序。

广东珠海官塘卓姓来自珠玑巷

 

广东珠海官塘卓姓来自珠玑巷

广东珠海官塘卓姓来自珠玑巷

广东珠海官塘卓姓来自珠玑巷